AP Village Agriculture Assistant Exam Pattern and Syllabus
Village Agriculture Assistant Recruitment
The Village Agriculture Assistant (VAA) exam in Andhra Pradesh is a competitive examination conducted by the state government to recruit individuals for the VAA program. The exam is intended to test the candidate’s knowledge and skills in the areas of agriculture and rural development.
Andhra Pradesh state government issue the AP Village Agriculture Assistant Notification 2022 to fill district-by-district vacant positions for Village Agriculture Assistant. This presents an excellent opportunity for all government job seekers who are preparing for VAA positions. Candidates who were looking for employment in the Andhra Pradesh Agriculture Department can take advantage of this opportunity and submit an online application at http://gramasachivalayam.ap.gov.in.
Village Agriculture Assistant Syllabus
- GENERAL STUDIES AND MENTAL ABILITY
- General Mental ability and reasoning.
- Quantitative aptitude including data interpretation.
- General English.
- Current affairs of regional, national and International importance.
- General Science and its Applications to the day to day life, Contemporary development in science and Technology, and Information Technology.
- History & Culture of India with a specific focus on AP.
- Indian polity and governance: constitutional issues, 73/74th Amendments, public policy, reforms ad centre – state relations with specific reference to Andhra Pradesh.
- Society, Social justice, rights issues.
- Physical geography of Indian sub-continent and Andhra Pradesh.
- Key welfare & development schemes of the Government of Andhra Pradesh.
PART – B
Principles and Practices of crop production:
- Development of Agriculture in India: History- ICAR, National and international agricultural research Institutes. Indian agriculture –land and water resources.
- Agro-climatic zones of Andhra Pradesh: Major crops- soils-weather – growing period – ANGRAU research stations.
- Monsoons: Seasons- Seasonal crops- influence of weather on crop growth and development.
- Tillage: Tilth- Objectives of tillage, characteristics of the good seed bed, and effect of tillage on soil properties, Types of tillage – Primary, secondary, and seedbed preparation, Puddling.
- Seeds: Seed material, Characteristics of seed.
- Sowing: Methods of sowing, Time of sowing, Depth of sowing, Seed rate, and Spacing of important crops.
- Crop stand establishment: factors affecting crop stand establishment.
- Plant population: optimum plant population and environment.
- Soil fertility: Soil productivity, Soil fertility losses, Maintenance of soil fertility, Soil organic matter.
- Manures: Bulky organic manures, concentrated organic manures, soil amendments, and bio-fertilizers.
- Mineral nutrition: Essential elements, Deficiency symptoms, Toxicity symptoms, and Correction measures.
- Fertilizers: Classification- Nitrogenous, Phosphatic and Potassic fertilizers, Fertilizer dose, Methods of fertilizer application, Time of fertilizer application-compatibility of fertilizers.
- Irrigation water management: Basics on soil-plant-water relationship, Critical periods of irrigation, Water requirements of crops, Methods of irrigation, water Productivity, farm Irrigation, and drainage practices.
- Weed: Definition, weed problems, weed classification, Crop-weed competition, Critical periods of crop-weed competition, Weed management- chemical & nonchemical (cultural, physical, mechanical, and biological) control methods.
- Dryland Agriculture: Dryland farming and Rainfed farming, Problems of crop production in dry farming.
- Cropping systems: Terminology, Crop rotation, Navadhanya.
- Harvesting & storage of major crops in Andhra Pradesh.
- Sustainable Agriculture and Organic Farming: Definition, Concept, Meaning, and Components.
- Package of practices of major crops grown in Andhra Pradesh.
Principles and Practices of Soil Science and Management
- Introduction: Mineral matter, organic matter, water and soils-Branches of soil science.
- Definition of soil: Soil profile, Description of a theoretical soil profile, Difference between surface soil and sub-surface soil.
- Minerals: Definition, Classification based on origin and chemical composition.
- Weathering: Type of weathering, Physical, Chemical, and Biological weathering.
- Soil formation: Soil forming factors- Active and passive factors-their role in soil formation.
- Soil Texture: Classification of soil texture, Importance of soil texture.
- Soil structure: Definition-Classification based on type-Class and grades, Factors influencing the formation of aggregates-Importance and management of soil structure.
- Bulk density: Particle density-Factors influencing and importance-Porosity, Soil moisture tension, Soil moisture potential, Soil moisture constants, and determination of soil moisture content.
- Infiltration: Factors affecting infiltration-Importance-Percolation and PermeabilityDistribution of water in the soil profile
- Soil mulch: Definition and importance
- Soil air: Composition of soil air, Soil aeration indices, and their importance
- Soil temperature: Influence of soil temperature on plant growth, Factors influencing soil temperature, Management of soil temperature.
- Soil color: Importance of soil color.
- Ion exchange in soils: Cation exchange and anion exchange-Cation exchange capacity, Anion exchange capacity, Base saturation-Calculations of CEC, AEC, and Base saturation.
- Soil biology: Types of organisms in the soil and their important characters, Benefits, and Harmful effects of soil micro-organisms.
- Soil organic matter: Decomposition of organic matter, Mineralization, and immobilization.
- Humus: Importance of soil organic matter, C: N ratio, Significance of C: N ratio
- Problem soils: Salt affected soils-Saline, alkaline, and Saline-alkali soils-Causes for formation and reclamation of salt-affected soils.
- Acid soils: Causes of soil acidity-Reclamation of acid soils
- Physical problems of soils: Their management
Principles of Agricultural Economics
- Agricultural Economics: Meaning, Nature and Scope, Importance of Economics and Agricultural Economics, Microeconomics and Macroeconomics, Basic economic problems.
- Agricultural production economics: Definitions, Nature and scope and Subject matter of Agricultural production economics, Objectives of production economics.
- Farm management: Meaning, definition, nature and scope, Farm management decisions economic principles applied to the organization of farm business.
- Farm Budgeting: Meaning, types of budget, partial budgeting, enterprise budgeting, and whole farm budgeting.
- Agricultural Credit: Meaning and definition of credit-classification of credit based on various criteria, the role of credit, and capital in the farm business.
- Agricultural Marketing: Definition – Meaning – Components of the market – Importance of Agricultural Marketing in economic development – classification of markets.
- Marketing functions: Meaning, Assembling, Packing, Grading and standardization, Transportation, Storage, Processing, Distribution, Buying and Selling, Market financing, Marketing intelligence, market information, and Risk management.
- Agribusiness Management: Meaning, Definition, Concept, Distinctive features of Agribusiness Management, application of management principles in agri-business.
- Agro-based industries: Importance, Need, classification of agro-based industries Procedure to be followed to set up agro-based industries, Constraints in establishing agro-based industries Importance.
- Discounted Techniques: Benefit Cost Ratio (BCR).
Fundamentals of Seed Technology:
- Introduction to seed and seed technology: Definitions and importance – Roles and goals of seed technology – Differences between scientifically produced seed and grain used as seed.
- Seed quality: Definition, characters of good quality seed, Problems and perspectives for the production of quality seeds, Different classes of seed –Seed generation systems – Seed multiplication ratios – Seed replacement rate.
- Deterioration of crop varieties: Factors responsible for loss of genetic purity – Safeguards for maintenance of genetic purity.
- Maintenance of genetic purity during seed production in self-pollinated and cross-pollinated crops.
- History and development of the seed industry: seed production organizations – National Seed Corporation (NSC) – Andhra Pradesh State Seed Development Corporation (APSSDC)
- Andhra Pradesh State Seed Certification Authority (APSSCA) and their functions.
- Seed Certification: History of seed certification, Procedure for seed certification, and field inspection.
- Seed Production: Foundation and certified seed production of varieties and hybrids in major crops of Andhra Pradesh, Varietal Identification through Grow Out Test –Electrophoresis, molecular and biochemical tests.
- Detection of genetically modified crops: Transgenic contamination in non-GM crops, GM crops, and organic seed production.
- Seed Processing: Planning, layout, and establishment of seed processing plant – Factors to be considered in planning and designing a seed processing plant – Types of layouts.
- Seed drying: Methods of seed drying, Sun drying, Forced air drying, Principle of forced air drying, Moisture equilibrium between seed and air.
- Drying zones in seed bin drying: Forced air drying method, Heated air drying system, Building requirements, Types of the air distribution system, and seed drying.
- Selection of crop dryers and systems of heated air drying: Recommended temperature and depth for heated air drying of various crop seeds in the bin –Management of seed drying operations.
- Seed cleaning: Pre-cleaning and preconditioning equipment, principle and method of seed cleaning, Air screen machine, Principle of cleaning, Parts of the air screen cleaner.
- Seed treatment: Its importance, Types of seed treatment and their benefits and method of application, Pre sowing treatments, and equipment used for seed treatment.
- Seed packaging: Operations in packaging, equipment used for packaging of seeds, Types of packing material, and packing size.
- Seed storage: Factors affecting seed longevity in storage and conditions required for good storage – General principles of seed storage, general principles, stages and factors affecting seed longevity during storage, measures for pest and disease control during storage, Multiple bin storages.
- Seed marketing: structure and organization, sales generation activities, promotional media, factors affecting seed marketing.
- Seed Act: Main features of the Seed Act, 1966 and Seed Act enforcement, Duties and powers of seed inspector, Offences and penalties, Seeds Control Order 1983.
- Seed testing: Objectives of seed testing, International Seed Testing Association (ISTA) and – Establishment of Seed Testing Laboratory (STL), Seed Testing Procedures for quality assessment.
Agricultural Extension Education
- Extension teaching methods: Meaning and Classification of Extension Methods.
- Group discussion: Purpose, Procedure, the role of chairman, the role of members, advantages and disadvantages.
- Audio–Visual Aids: Audio Aids, Visual Aids (Projected, Non-Projected), Audio Visual Aids, Posters.
- Small group discussion techniques: Lecture/extension talk, debate, symposium, panel, forum, buzz, workshop, brainstorming, seminar, conference. Simulated exercise on the debate, and buzz session.
- Method demonstration: Basis for demonstration, Purpose, procedure, advantages, and limitations. Planning for the conduct of method demonstrations.
- Exhibition: Purpose, Procedure, advantages, and limitations. Planning for preparation of Models.
- Information materials: Planning and preparation of Leaflet, folder, and pamphlet.
- Audio aids: Public Address System and Telephone Calls – Kisan Call Centre -handling of Public Address System.
- PowerPoint Slides: Planning and preparation of PowerPoint slides for effective presentation and handling LCD projector.
Fundamentals of Plant Protection
- Pests: Common Insects and Diseases on major crops grown in Andhra Pradesh.
- IPM: Integrated Pest & Disease Management on major crops grown in Andhra Pradesh.
- Safety issues in pesticide usage-awareness about IPM, Farmers participation –Government Support.
- Watershed: Definition, identification, and delineation, Physiographic characteristics of the watershed – area, coefficient of compactness, slope, shape factor, drainage density, relief, ruggedness, and hypsometric curve. Importance of these characteristics in watershed management. Principles and objectives of watershed management.
- Components of watershed management: Land management (structural measures, vegetative measures, production measures, and protection measures), water management (rainwater harvesting, groundwater recharge, maintenance of water balance, prevention of water pollution), and Biomass management. Formulation of participatory watershed development and management project, strategies for strengthening field implementation, and transfer of technology, for financial control. Strategies for farmers’ participation, strategies for proper maintenance of water sheds, format for the planning of watersheds
- Monitoring and evaluation of watershed projects: Monitoring and evaluation systems, monitoring and evaluation methodology, and Follow-up. Identification of constraints.
Soil and Water Conservation Practices:
- Soil erosion: Geological erosion, accelerated erosion – Agents of erosion – climate, topography, soils, vegetation, erosion by water, erosion by wind, and erosion by gravity.
- Rainfall: Runoff relation – Volume and peak rate of runoff.
- Erosion control measures: Agronomic measures, contour cultivation, strip cropping, the importance of contour farming, and mulching.
- Contour bunds: Construction and maintenance explanation of features like spacing, height, and cross-section of contour bunds.Graded bunds construction and maintenance, list of outlets for bunds
- Bench terraces: Types, construction, and maintenance, Explanation of features like Spacing, height, width, and cross-section of Bench terraces
- Contour trenches: Types, contour stone walls, the applicability of trenches, and contour stone walls.
- Water harvesting: Dugout and embankment type ponds –steps involved only for the design of embankment ponds and farm ponds.
- Land use capability classification.
Farm Machinery, power, and Agricultural Implements
- Primary tillage Implements: classification of primary tillage implements; indigenous plough – Parts of the indigenous plough.
- Animal-drawn Implements: Mould board plough, Ridger ploughs, and chisel ploughs.
- Tractor drawn Implements: Types – Mould board plough, Disc plough, Chiesel plough, Subsoiler, Rotary plough.
- Ploughing of land: Important terms related to ploughing of land–Methods of ploughing Gathering, Casting, Continuous ploughing method, Round and round ploughing, One-way ploughing.
- Secondary tillage implements: Classification of harrows.
- Animal-drawn implements: Guntaka (Blade harrow), cultivator, spike tooth harrow, and spring tyne harrow.
- Tractor-drawn implements Cultivators – Mounted and trailed type cultivators– Rigid, spring type cultivators and Duck foot cultivators. Puddler, power tiller, and Tractor cage wheels puddling.
- Land development implements: Levellers, bund former, Ridger, constructional details of implements.
- Green manure tramplers.
- Seeding and Fertilizing equipment: Methods of sowing, Seed drills.Zero till seed drill, Strip-till drill, and paddy seeder.
- Inter-cultivation implements Manual, bullock, and tractor-drawn implements.
- Wetland and dry land weeders: Paddy weeder, Hand hoe, Spade, and wheel hoe.
- Harvesting implements: Principle of cutting of a crop, types of impact cutters; Manual harvesting- Sickle.
- Methods of rice planting: Dry planting-wet planting-preparation of the field for transplanting.
- Paddy transplanters: Types –Riding, walking – 4 rows, 6 rows & 8 rows – constructional details and working.
- Nursery preparation machinery: Types of nursery raising- tray type, mat type, and traditional methods
- Combine harvester: Development history- Types – self-propelled combine- pull type combine – Functions of Combine harvester – advantages and disadvantage
- Plant protection machinery: Sprayers-dusters – Applications – Functions – Desirable quality of sprayer-Methods of applying liquid chemicals.
- Sprayers: Classification of sprayers – Non-pressure type – Low-pressure type – High-pressure type – basic components of a sprayer.
- Manually operated sprayers: Types- Hand operated sprayer – Knapsack sprayer, Foot sprayer, Rocker sprayer – compression sprayer-Hand compression sprayer- and atomizer
- Power-operated sprayers: Mist Blower – High-pressure motorized knapsack sprayer.
- Types of Nozzles: Working principle.
- Dusters: Principle of dusting –Classification of dusters –Hand-operated dusters – Power-operated dusters – Working principle.
Environmental Science and Disaster Management:
- Environmental studies: Definition, scope, and importance, Natural resources – renewable and non-renewable resources
- Forest resources: Functions of forests, causes, and consequences of deforestation, food security.
- Water resources: Sources, use, and overutilization of surface and ground waters; dams – benefits and problems. Sustainable management of water- Water conservation, rainwater harvesting.
- Energy resources: Renewable and non-renewable energy resources, their impact on the environment, Role of an individual in the conservation of natural resources.
- Biodiversity: Conservation of biodiversity- in situ and ex-situ. Methods of measuring biodiversity, Biodiversity Act.
- Environmental pollution: Causes, effects, and control measures of soil, water, and air pollution, tolerable limits of toxic gases in the air, and toxic metals in soils – drinking and irrigation water standards.
- Solid waste management: Causes, effects, and control measures agricultural wastes, Urban and industrial wastes. Role of individuals in prevention of pollution.
- Climate change: Global warming, Ozone layer depletion, sea level rise, acid rain.
- Acts: The Environment Protection Act: The air (Prevention and control of pollution) Act, The Water (Prevention and control of pollution) Act, The Wildlife Protection Act, and the Forest Conservation Act.
- Disaster management: Natural Disasters and nature of the natural disasters, their types, and effects- Floods, drought, cyclones, and earthquakes.
- Manmade disasters: Nuclear disasters, Chemical disasters, biological disasters, coal/ forest/ oil fires.
- Disaster Mitigation: Concept- Role of NGOs, Community-based organizations, media, Centre, state, district, and local administration, Armed forces, Police, and other organizations in disaster response.
Post Harvest Technology
- Post-harvest technology and its importance: Threshing – definition, methods, and principles of threshing, types of thrashers, components, and operation of the pedal-operated thresher.
- Winnowing: Definition; principles of winnowing; types of winnowers– winnowing fans and winnowers.
- Drying: Definition; advantages, methods of drying; classification.
- Sun drying: Types of sun drying & Mechanical Drying.
- Types of dryers: Deep bed dryers; Continuous flow dryers; non-mixing (column dryer and recirculatory dryers); mixing (baffle and L.S.U drier); fluidized bed dryer.
- Grain storage structures: Traditional structures, Improved storage structure.
Eligibility or Qualifications for AP Village Agriculture Assistant
- The candidate must have completed a four-year agricultural science degree program (or its equivalent) at a state-recognized university.
- 2-Year Polytechnic Agriculture Diploma (OR) 2-Year Polytechnic Diploma in Agriculture (Seed Technology) (OR) Two-Year Polytechnic Diploma in Agriculture (Organic Farming) (OR) The ANGRAU recognizes the three-year Agriculture Polytechnic Diploma (Agricultural Engineering).
Pattern of Village Agriculture Assistant Exam
- There will be a total of 150 questions in Part A and Part B of the Village Agriculture Assistant exam.
- 50 multiple questions will be asked from Part A and the remaining 100 multiple questions will be asked from Part B.
- The Village Agriculture Assistant Exam Duration is 2 Hours 30 Minutes.
- The paper carries 150 Multiple Choice Questions with One Mark each.
- All Questions will be Objective Type with 4 Options.
- A negative Marking of 1/4 Mark will award for each wrong answer.
- Blue or Black Ball Pen allowed to fill the Circle.
- The question Paper Language will be English or Telugu.
- Exam conducted by Offline OMR Mode.
Hello, I am Sonu Verma, M.Sc. (Horti.) Agriculture content writer, and an enthusiast who loves to share knowledge. No Culture Without Agriculture.