Seed and Types of Seed – AgriBooks
Seed and Types of Seed
Definition of Seed:

In broad sense: Seed is a material which is used for planting or regeneration purpose.

Scientifically: Seed is a fertilized matured ovule together covered with seed coat is called seed or it is a propagating material.

Technological point of view: Seed is a fertilized ripened ovule consisting of three main parts namely seed coat, endosperm and embryo, which in due course gives rise to a new plant.

It also refers to: Propagating materials of healthy seedlings, tuber, bulbs, rhizome, roots, cuttings, setts, all types of grafts and vegetatively propagating materials used for production purpose.

seedTypes of Seed:

Nucleus seed:- This is the 100% genetically pure seed with physical purity and produced by the original breeder/Institute/State Agriculture University (SAU) from basic nucleus seed stock. A pedigree certificate is issued by the producing breeder. It is not sold in Market.

Breeder seed:-  The progeny of nucleus seed multiplied in large area as per indent of Department of Agriculture and Cooperation (DOAC), Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India, under supervision of plant breeder / institute / SAUs and monitored by a committee consisting of the representatives of state seed certification agency, national / state seed corporations, ICAR nominee and concerned breeder. This is also 100% physical and genetic pure seed for production of foundation seed. A golden yellow colour certificate is issued for this category of seed by the producing breeder.

Foundation Seed:- The progeny of breeder seed produced by recognized seed producing agencies in public and private sector, under supervision of seed certification agencies in such a way that its quality is maintained according to prescribed field ad seed standards. A white colour certificate is issued for foundation seed by seed certification agencies. It has 98% genetic purity.

Registered seed:- It is a progeny of foundation seed. It is not prepared in India. It has purple colour tag.

Certified seed:- The progeny of foundation seed produced by registered seed growers under supervision of seed certification agencies to maintain the seed quality as per minimum seed certification standards. A blue colour certificate is issued by seed certification agency for this category of seed. The foundation and certified seeds can be multiplied at stage 1 and II, but the reproduction cannot exceed three generations after breeder seed.

Truthful labelled Seed:- It is the category of seed produced by cultivators, private seed companies and is sold under truthful labels. But field standard and seed standard should maintain as per seed act and certified seed stage. Under the seed act, the seed producer and seed seller are responsible for the seed.

Tag Colour and Tag Size of Seed
Seed Tag Colour Tag Size Under Supervision
Breeder Seed Golden Yellow 12×6 cm Breeder
Foundation Seed White 15×7.5cm Foundation Staff
Registered Seed Purple 15×7.5cm Production Department
Certified Seed Blue 15×7.5cm Production Department
Truthful labelled Seed Opel Green 15x10cm Private seed companies


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