Veterinary Drugs and their Uses
1. Antibiotics: The chemicals obtained from molds and bacteria which inhibit the growth of other microorganisms and destroy them are called antibiotics; e.g. Penicillium, Streptomycin, Chloromycetin, etc.
2. Antiseptics: The medicines which only inhibit the growth of microbes but do not kill them are called antiseptics, e.g. Boric acid, Dettol. Iodine, Potassium Permanganate (Merbromin or Red liquid), etc.
3. Disinfectants: The medicines which kill germs along with their spores are called disinfectants, e.g. Phenyl, Lysol, Lime, Carbolic acid (Phenol) etc.
4. Purgatives: The medicines or compounds which cause Diarrhea after they are administered are called purgatives. These can be divided into 3 groups :
(a) Laxatives: These purgatives causes general Diarrhea, e.g. Isabgol husk, Green fodder, sulfur, molasses, etc)
(b) Simple Purgatives: These purgatives cause full evacuation of bowels without causing any abdominal cramp, e.g), Magnesium sulphate, Castor oil, Linseed oil, Sodium sulphate, etc.
(c) Drastic Purgatives: These cause abdominal cramp with frequent evacuation of bowels, e.g. Croton oil. Intravenous injection of Barium chloride, etc.
5. Stimulants: These medicines or compounds cause stimulation in the body, e.g., Alcohol, Camphor, Caffeine, etc.
6. Astringents: These compounds stop the flow of blood or liquid by contracting the blood vessels, mucous membranes and fibres, e.g. Tincture iodine, and alum are external astringents whereas chalk, catechu, opium, etc. are used as internal astringents to control loose motions.
7. Massaging Oils: These oils are used for massage, e.g. Mustard oil, Turpentine
oil, Sesame oil, etc.
8. Antipyretics: These medicines are given to lower the temperature during fever, e.g. Aspirin, quinine, salicylic acid, etc.
9. Expectorants: These are the substances which increase and dilute the secretions of pulmonary tube and facititate their expulsion, e.g. Ammonia, Aromatic oil, Volatile oil.
10. Anti-Expectorants: These medicines decrease the secretion of pulmonary tube, e.g. Opium, belladonna.
11. Antidotes: These medicines are given to reverse the effect of poison, e.g. Iron salt for cyanide.
12. Anaesthetics: These medicines are used to produce unconsciousness, e.g. Charoform, ether, nitrous oxide, etc.
13. Antizymotics: These substances stop the fermentation process. These are given to prevent bloating and stomach ache, e.g. Boric acid, formalin, etc.
14. Carminatives: These substances prevent the formation of gas in the gastrointestinal tract and facilitate the expulsion of gas, e.g. Heeng, fennel seeds, cumin, fenugreek, ether, etc.
15. Analgesics: These substances reduce the irritability of nerves and lower the pain. They are also called Anodynes, e.g. ammonia, liniment of camphor, aspirin, cannabis, etc.
16. Sedatives: These medicines contain both colic sedatives and sleep aids. They reduce the over-excitement of nervous system.
17. Narcotics: They cause drowsiness and insensibility, reduced blood circulation and respiratory depression, e.g. chloroform, ether, cannabis, chloral hydrate, etc.
18. Parasiticides: These medicines destroy the parasites of skin. They are also called Antiparasitics, e.g., copper sulphate, phenyl, methyl parathion, etc.
19. Deodorants: These substances remove or reduce foul smell, e.g., phenyl, bleaching powder, etc.
20. Anthelmintics: These medicines or substances expel parasitic worms present in the body, e.g. copper sulphate, nicotine sulphate, ferrous sulphate, turpentine oil, etc.
21. Vermifuges: Those medicines that kill the internal parasites are called vermicides and those that do not kill them but expel them out of the body are called vermifuges.
22. Emetics: These medicines stimulate vomiting, e.g. salt, zinc sulphate, blue vitriol, alum, etc.
23. Caustics: These medicines or compounds destroy the tissues by burning them, e.g. copper sulphate, potassium permanganate (red medicine), caustic alkali, phenol, zinc sulphate, zinc chloride, etc.
Doses and Techniques for Administering the following General Medicines:
Identification: This is dark-brown coloured liquid compound with a specific odour. It forms white solution on mixing with water. It is used as disinfectant, deodorant and parasiticide
(i) The walls, floors, drains and other dirty areas of stockyard should be washed with of phenyl solution to make it germ free.
(ii) It is used to cure foot and mouth disease of animals by cleaning their hooves with of phenyl.
(iii) 1%-2% phenyl solution is used to destroy parasites like ticks, lices, etc.
(iv) 1% of this solution is used to clean any cut on the animals’ body.
2. Carbolic Acid:
Identification : It is white, granular, sweet in taste and pungent in odour. It is soluble in water, alcohol, ether and glycerine. It is also called phenol.
Uses : It is used as antiseptic, disinfectant, caustic and parasiticide. Its internal effect is sedative and anti-zymotie.
(i) It is applied directly on the area bitten by snake or dog.
(ii) Its solution is used as disinfectant in cleaning the stockyard.
(iii) solution to clean wounds, solution is used in killing parasites like ticks and mites in scabies.
3. Potassium Permanganate (Red Medicine):
Identification: It is dark purple in colour, granular, odourless compound having a sweet and styptic taste. Red coloured solution is obtained on mixing with water, that’s why it is also called red medicine.
Uses: It is used as antiseptic, disinfectant, deodorant, caustic and antihelmintic.
(i) 1% solution is used to sanitization & to wash the wounds of animals.
(ii) Powder form of potassium permanganate is used as caustic on blisters.
(iii) Injection of 2% solution acts as a powerful antidote for snake venom. Applying its granules on the snake bitten part is also very beneficial.
(iv) Animals are made to drink its diluted solution for killing internal parasites.
Identification : It is a brown coloured liquid which makes a whitish brown colour solution when mixed with water. It has a specific odour
Uses : It is used as antiseptic, deodorant and antidote.
(i) Its 1%-2% solution should be used for disinfecting walls, floor, instruments and implements and drains of stockyard & to wash the uterus in case of uterine defects.
(ii) Its 1% solution is used to wash the wounds of animals.
1. Magsulf or Magnesium Sulphate:
Identification It is solid, granular, is bitter or styptic in taste, white and is an odourless compound. It is soluble in water and feels cool if kept on tongue.
Uses: Magsulf is used as purgative and antipyretic.
(i) 250gm to 400gm of it is given to cows and buffaloes to evacuate the bowels.
(ii) For causing acute Diarrhea in animals, it is given to them by mixing with the same quantity of salt.
(ii) 50-125gm is given to animals (cows and buffaloes) for controlling fever.
(iv) It case of sprain and swelling, its thick solution should be applied on the affected area to provide them relief.
2. Castor Oil
Identification: It is colourless or light yellow in colour, has mild odour, and is a thick liquid. It is soluble in alcohol.
Uses: It is used as a mild purgative and protective
(i) Its 600-1200ml is given to big animals and 50-125ml is given to smaller animals for evacuating the bowel.
(ii) In case baby has not got colostrum, then its 10ml is given 2-3 times a day to evacuate the bowels.
(iii) Few drops of this oil is applied into the eyes of animals if some foreign particle has fallen, or in case of some wound, as a protective measure.
Identification: It is a commercial product, which is colourless, transparent, of a particular smell and is a thin liquid. It is volatile and highly inflammable liquid
Uses : Internally, it acts as stimulant, and externally, as disinfectant.
(i) Its 500ml is given to old animals to protect them from cold and fatigue.
(ii) To develop internal stimulation in case of pneumonia and influenza.
(iii) It is used for preparing chloroform and tincture iodine.
(iv) It is given to female animals to reduce the labour pain.
Identification : It is prepared naturally by distillation process of camphor wood. But it is also prepared synthetically. It is colourless, transparent, has a unique odour, inflammable, light and solid substance which gets vaporized if kept open. It is bitter in taste, highly soluble in alcohol, ether and chloroform.
Uses: It is used as antiseptic, antipyretic, disinfectant and carminative.
(i) To protect animals from cough and cold, camphor and olive oil or ether mixed in ratio of 1:4 should be given either:
- Through injection, cow or buffalo : 1.5-2.5 gm.
- Orally – cow or buffalo – 10-15 gm – goat or sheep – 1.5-3 gm.
(ii) Camphor is mixed with basil leaves and the paste is applied on wounds to kill germs.
(iii) Liniment prepared by mixing 100gm camphor with 400gm groundnut oil helps in treating sprain, pain of wounds, ete. in animals.
(iv) Following antiseptic powder of camphor is very helpful if applied on blisters and wounds: Camphor 3.5gm, alum 7gm, zinc oxide 7gm, carbolic acid 3.5gm and boric acid 2.25gm.
(v) Mixture of 2 grain camphor and 2 grain musk prepared in honey is given to animals suffering from pneumonia.
1. Blue Vitriol:
Identification: It is solid, blue in colour, granular and styptic in taste. It turns green if kept for a longer time. It is soluble in boiling water.
Uses: It is anthelmintic, antiseptic, emetic and parasiticide.
(i) Its 1% solution is used for destroying internal parasites in animals. Quantity to be given to cows and buffalos is 250-300mland for goats and sheep it is 50-70 ml.
(ii) Its 1% solution is used for foot wash or washing the hooves of animals suffering from hoof diseases.
(iii) Its 2% solution is sprayed to destroy harmful insects / germs in the pasture.
Identification: It is also known as Phenothaizine. It is smooth and fine powder, which is lemon yellow in colour. It is tasteless, insoluble in water and gets oxidized if kept open in the air
Uses: It is used as anthelmintic.
(i) For killing the worms present in stomach and intestine of the animals.
(ii) For cows and buffaloes 30-45gm, and for sheep and goats, 15-30gm of it is mixed in water. The prepared solution is divided into two parts and given two times in order to kill worms.
1. Tincture Iodine:
Identification: Its main compound is iodine, which is largely crystalline, dark bluish or shiny black in colour, granular, has a specific odour, is solid which gets oxidized if kept open in air. It is soluble in alcohol. It has the following components :
- Potassium Iodide – 5gm
- Iodine – 5 gm
- Sprit – 100ml
- Wine – 100ml
- Water – 10ml
(i) It is used to keep the skin of animals germ free.
(ii) It is also used to stop decomposition of wounds.
(iii) It is also used as disinfectant in general cleaning to get rid of flies.
Identification: It is colourless or light pinkish, largely crystallized, solid substance. It is sweet to styptic in taste is and soluble in water.
Uses: It is used as an astringent and antiseptic.
(i) It is used to stop blood oozing out from the wounds of animals.
(ii) Its 2-5% solution is used to wash eyes and uterus of animals.
(iii) Its 1-2% solution is used to treat mouth ulcer and in the treatment of hoof and mouth diseases of animals.
(iv) It is directly given to animals to stop internal bleeding.
1. Turpentine Oil
Identification : It is thin, clear and colourless liquid obtained from pine tree. It has specific odour and tastes bitter and acrid. It is soluble in alcohol, ether, chloroform and acetic acid.
Uses: It is used as antiseptic, parasiticide, antizymatic and carminative.
(i) Rub on chest of animals as massage oil in case of pneumonia and pleurisy.
(ii) It case of swelling or pain in animals, it is mixed with mustard oil and massaged on the affected area.
(iii) Animals should be fed 30-60 ml of it along with other oils in case of bloating.
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