Poultry Diseases Symptoms and Treatments – AgriBooks
Poultry Diseases Symptoms and Treatments
1. Fowl Pox
It occurs generally in fowls of all ages during summer. But it occurs more in 8-12 week age group birds. This makes the bird weak and also increases their death rate. If it occurs once in any bird, then it won’t occur again.It spreads quickly. It is a major disease found in turkeys and fowls, but it can also occur in pigeon, duck, etc.
It spreads through virus. In fowls, it occurs/spreads by Borreliota arium, in Turkey by B. Melagridis and in pigeons by B. columbae.
Pox in fowl is of three types :
- Dry pox: It is also known as cutaneous pox. In this, dry scabs are seen on face, comb, neck etc.
- Wet pox : It is a diphtheria type pox. It affects the mucous membrane of the mouth and food pipe.
- In third type of pox, Coryza-like disease symptoms are seen. In this, infection occurs in nose.
Symptoms of the above mentioned three types of pox are as follows :
- Small bubbles occur on the bird’s comb, beak, legs, eyelids and skin, which, in the beginning, are light brown in colour, and then they become dark brown on getting dried up. After 3-4 weeks, dry skin starts shedding.
- High fever occurs in birds.
- There is swelling in wind pipe and salivary substance starts secreting.
- Swelling in head due to which the birds die.
- Thin light-yellow coloured membrane forms on eyes, mouth and neck, below which, small granular-red like appearance is visible.
It has no proper immediate treatment, but following treatment can be administered for the birds.
- If flakes are removed from the bird’s skin, then it gives relief to the birds. But this is done only in general situation, but if the disease has advanced, then doing so can prove to be dangerous.
- Mixture of Silver Nitrate and Picric acid solution is placed on their affected part.
- 10% Carbolytic vaccine is applied on the body. But, if symptoms occur in the eyes and on the mouth then these above remedies are not beneficial. Hence, we use glycerine.
Prevention and Control
Two types of vaccines are used to control fowl pox :
- Pigeon pox vaccine : It helps to protect chicks, and its effect remains up to 3 months only.
- Fowl pox vaccine : This provides lifetime protection to the chicks. Its vaccination is given just before summers start. In this vaccine, glycerine and salt is mixed before giving the vaccine.All fowls placed at one farm are vaccinated at the same time, because vaccinated fowls may affect the non-vaccinated fowls.
Bloody motions occur in small aged chicks, i.e. 3-12 months old. If most of birds start dying suddenly, then this occurs due to this disease.
It spreads through single-celled protozoans.
These are of different types, among which nine eimeria species affect the health of the birds. Out of these nine, three species are the most harmful, i.e. Eimeria tenella, Eimeria necatrix and Eimeria acervulina.
- Bloody motions occur in chicks and sometimes brownish-yellow coloured substance also comes out from the anus.
- Birds stop eating and drinking.
- Due to blood deficiency, body and legs become yellow.
- Birds fall or slip downwards.
- Birds become lazy and develop giddiness and their eyelids start closing and birds start dying.
- Large intenstine’s upper part increases in size and yellow-brown coloured substance or blood gets filled in it. Due to accumulation of these substances, cells of the intestine burst out.
- Sulfamezathene and sulfacunoxylin of amount 0.05% and 0.1% is given with drinking water.
In this disease, several coccidiostats like Cadrinal, Bifran, Diodin, Sulphate, Embazin, Asproal etc. are given in the form of medicine to the chicks in appropriate amount.
3. Ranikhet (New castle)
- Caused by paramyxovirus Type- 1 .
- It is an acute highly contagious viral disease of poultry.
- The disease affects all age groups of birds.
- It causes heavy economic losses to the poultry industry by way of high morbidity (100%) and mortality (50-90 %) and drop in egg production
- First case of NewCastle Disease was recorded in 1928 at Ranikhet near Almora in India, hence it is named as Ranikhet disease.
- The disease spreads through infected feed, water or air.
- Main symptom of Ranikhet disease is problem in breathing. Fowls breathe through the mouth and paralysis occurs in legs and feathers.
- Gasping (difficult breathing), Sneezing, Coughing, Nasal discharge.
- Greenish watery diarrhea
- Tremors (twitching), Torticollis i.e. twisting of neck
- Drop in egg production in layers. Finally death.
For prevention of Ranikhet disease, vaccination of F_1 Strain is given on the first day, and R_2 B Strain vaccine is provided to fowls which are eight weeks of age.
4. Marek’s Disease
- caused by Herpes Virus
- Marek’s disease is a highly contagious viral disease, primarily of young chickens between 3-5 months of age.
- Infection is transmitted through inhalation of infectious material from the environment.
- Paralysis of one or both legs, neck and wings.
- Drooping or hanging of wings.
- One leg is extended forward and the other backward.
- Blindness in one or both eyes (ophthalmic form).
- White nodules on skin (cutaneous form).
- Sudden death in acute form.
Herpes virus of Turkey – HVT Vaccine is given to day old chick.
5. Gumboro Disease / Infectious Bursal Disease
- caused by Avian Reovirus /IBD virus.
- Infectious bursal disease was reported for the first time from Gumboro in the USA.
- It is an acute highly contagious viral disease of 3 to 6 week old chicks.
- It causes heavy economic losses to the poultry industry by way of high morbidity (100%) and mortality (20-30 %).
- Transmission : The disease spreads through ingestion of contaminated feed and water.
- Loss of appetite, Dullness and depression.
- Ruffled feathers, Diarrhea- loose faeces.
- It is a common bacterial infection and inflammatory reaction.
- Bumblefoot can take various forms, but it usually looks like an abscess-like swelling with a central, dark-colored scab that may or may not ooze
List of Vaccination of Fowls
Age of Chicks
Time of Protection
1 day - 1 week
Egg adapted IB.
Freeze Till 6 months
Not exactly known
By droplets in the nose
Vaccine strain F or Lasota
For three months in freezer and for then days at room tempemerature
By droplets in the nose
Till one week
MD (Marek's disease)
Imported vaccine for Mycoplasma-turkey or duck veneral disease
Freeze drying vaccine till 2 months
Not exactly known
0.2 ml or as per instruction
By mixing glycerine in the vaccine of pigeon having pox
Freeze till 2 months
Till 6 - 8 weeks
Chicks embryo vaccine viral vaccination for pox
Freeze till two months
For life time
Tampon and later two incisions
Vaccine Mukteshwar (Strain)=R2B for 10 days)
Freeze till 3 months and at room temperature
For life time
Freeze drying vaccine in cold storage for one year and for 15 days at room temperature
Till 1.5 years
12 weeks or more than that
Diarrhoea in fowls
Broth vaccine of flashy juice of fowl
Freeze at 2-5 Digree for 6 months
Till 3 months