Diseases of Mango
India is one of the world’s largest producers of mangoes, recognised for its numerous and rich mango varieties and their unique taste and flavours. Mango is a tropical fruit known for its sweet and juicy flesh, brilliant colours, and distinctive flavours. Mangoes have a special place in Indian culture, and they are frequently referred to as the “king of fruits.”
Mangoes are susceptible to pathogen-induced by fungi, bacteria, viruses, algae, nematodes and mycoplasma. These Diseases of Mango are various that might impact mango trees and fruit in India, where mango production is widespread. Mango Diseases are common Diseases of Mango include:
Causal Organism: Colletrotrichum gloeosporioides (Fungal Disease)
- It is a Pre-Harvest and Post-Harvest disease of Mango.
- Leaf spots, blossom blights, wither tips, twig blight, and fruit rot are all produced.
- On the leaves and twigs, little blister-like patches appear.
- Tender twigs wither and die-back symptoms occur when young leaves wither and dry.
- Affected branches eventually dry up. Fruits develop black patches.
- When the fruit pulp ripens, it becomes hard, cracks, and decays. Infected fruits fall to the ground.
- Spray P. fluorescens (FP 7) at 3 weeks interval commencing from October at 5g/like on flower branches.
- 5-7 sprays one to be given on flowers and bunches.
- Before storage, treat with hot water, (50-55°C) for 15 minutes or dip in Benomyl solution (500ppm) or Thiabendazole (1000ppm) for 5 minutes.
2. Powdery mildew
Causal Organism: Fungus Oidium mangiferae (Acrosporum mangiferae)
- It destroys the leaves, flowers, panicle stalks, and fruits.
- Shedding of diseased leaves happens when the disease is severe.
- The damaged fruits do not grow and may drop before reaching pea size.
- Survives as dormant mycelium in infected leaves.
- Secondary spread via airborne conidia.
- Dusting the plants with fine sulphur (250-300 mesh) at the rate of 0.5 kg/tree.
- The first application may be soon after flowering, the second 15 days later (or) spray with Wettable sulphur (0.2%), (or) Carbendazim (0.1%), (or) Tridemorph ( 0.1%),(or) Karathane (0.1%).
3. Mango Malformation
Causal Organism: Fungus Fusarium moniliforme sp. subglutinans
- There are three sorts of symptoms: bunchy top phase, floral malformation, and vegetative malformation.
- In the bunchy top phase of the nursery, bunching of thickened tiny shoots bearing little rudimentary leaves. Shoots stay short and stunted, giving the top a bunchy appearance.
- Excessive vegetative branches of limited growth in seedlings are examples of vegetative malformation. They are bloated, with short internodes generating bunches of varying diameters, and the seedlings have a bunchy top look.
- The panicle varies in malformation of inflorescences. A misshapen head dries up in a black mass and lasts for a long period. Secondary branches are turned into a slew of little leaves, giving the impression of a witch’s broom.
- Plants that are diseased should be destroyed.
- Use of disease-free planting material.
- Spraying 100-200ppm NAA reduced the incidence in October.
- Pruning of sick sections along the base 15-20 cm apparently healthy portions.
- This is followed by the application of Carbendazim (0.1%) or Captafol (0.2%).
4. Sooty Mould Disease in Mango
Causal Organism: Fungus; Meliola mangiferae
- Sooty Mould disease is common in mango orchards where sap-sucking insects, like Mealybug, Scale and Mango Hoppers are not controlled efficiently.
- This disease is recognized by the presence of a black sooty mould on the upper leaf surface. In severe cases, the leaves turn completely black due to the presence of mould over the entire surface of twigs and leaves.
- The fungus is responsible for this sooty mould formation. Honeydew secretions from sap-sucking insects stick to the leaf surface and provide the necessary medium for fungal growth
- Spray Dilute solution of starch @5% on sooty mound affected leaves.
5. Mango Die Back
- Mango dieback is a devastating fungal disease affecting the mango. The disease on the tree can be seen at any time of year, although it is most noticeable between October and November.
- It is distinguished by the drying back of twigs from top to bottom, especially in elder trees, followed by the drying of leaves, giving the impression of a fire scorch.
- The afflicted plants secrete a lot of gum from their branches, stems, and main trunks. When wood tissue is cut open along its long axis, internal browning is visible.
- The damaged leaf turns brown, and the margins curl upward. Branch cracks form, and at this point, a leaf falls and the twig/branch dies.
- Scion wood chosen for grafting propagation should be devoid of infection.
- Pruning diseased twigs 2-3 inches below the damaged section and spraying infected trees with Copper Oxychloride (0.3%) control the disease. Copper Oxychloride paste (0.3%) is applied to the cut ends of clipped twigs in tiny plants.
- Any contaminated area in the nursery should be clipped quickly, followed by spraying/pasting of copper oxychloride (0.3%) or pasting with cow dung at the cut ends.
6. Phoma Blight of Mango
Causal Organism: Fungus; Phoma glomerata.
- Only aged leaves exhibit the symptoms. Initially, the spots are angular, minute, yellow to light brown in colour, uneven in shape, and distributed across the leaf lamina. Their colouration eventually fades to brown, with black edges and dull grey necrotic centre.
- Defoliation occurs when the infection is severe.
The disease can be controlled by a spray of Copper Oxychloride (0.3%) immediately after the onset of symptoms, followed by 20-day interval sprays.
7. Bacterial Canker of Mango
Causal Organism: Fungus; Xanthomonas glomerata.
- It is a devastating mango disease in India. Fruit drop (10-70%), yield loss (10-85%), and storage rot (5-100%) are all symptoms of the disease.
- The disease expresses itself on leaves, petioles, twigs, branches, and fruits.
- The disease symptoms appear as minute water-soaked irregular lesions on any portion of the leaf/leaf lamina and progress to irregular necrotic cankerous patches.
- Water-soaked lesions form on fruits, which eventually turn dark brown to black due to fruit shattering and extensive bacterial exuviation.
- During rainy days, disease spread is quick. High humidity (90% RH), moderate temperatures (25-30° C), and high wind velocity all promote disease development.
Two sprays of streptocycline tetracycline (90:10) at 200-300 ppm at 20-25 day intervals minimise fruit infection. Dip the fruits in a plantamyxin solution of 200 PPM.
8. Red Rust of Mango
Causal Organism: Algae; Cephaleuros virescens.
- The disease is characterized by initial green-coloured patches, and when the disease advances, these turn into red rusty coloured spots on the leaves and young twigs.
Sprays of Bordeaux mixture 1.2%.
9. Pink Disease / Thread Blight of Mango
Causal Organism: Fungus; Pellicularia salmonicolor.
The signs of this disease are a pinkish powdery coating on twigs and branches caused by the fungi abundant conidial production.
Pink Disease is controlled by pruning affected branches and applying Bordeaux paste to the wounds.
Hello, I am Sonu Verma, M.Sc. (Horti.) Agriculture content writer, and an enthusiast who loves to share knowledge. No Culture Without Agriculture.