Permaculture – Definition, Principles and Benefits


What is Permaculture

Permaculture is an ecological and sustainable living design concept that incorporates plants, animals, people, buildings, and communities.

Permaculture agriculture is basically a farming method that uses natural forces such as wind, sun, and water to create food, shelter, and water.

Perma-culture, which is derived from the term “permanent agriculture,” is the design of diversified and resilient agriculture systems that mimic natural systems in their ability to regenerate and adapt to environmental changes.

Researchers Bill Mollison and David Holmgren coined the term “permaculture” to encourage people to interact with agriculture in innovative ways. Permaculture is defined as “the harmonious integration of landscape and people,” with the goal of meeting human “needs in a sustainable way.” A perma-culture system may differ depending on geography and purpose, but one thing remains constant: it is a new way to think about agriculture.

Bill Mollison is known as the “Father of Permaculture” because to his significant contribution in inventing and popularising the concept.

Principles of Permaculture

  • Observe and interact
  • Catch and store energy
  • Obtain a yield
  • Apply self-regulation and accept feedback
  • Use and value renewable resources and services
  • Produce no waste
  • Design from Patterns to Details
  • Integrate rather than segregate
  • Use and value diversity
  • Use Small and Slow Solutions
  • Use Edges and Value the Marginal
  • Creatively Use and Respond to Change


Benefits of Permaculture

  • The procedure promotes a healthy society.
  • Seasonal cultivation and consumption predominate in accordance with the body’s true needs.
  • Because the resources come from the environment, the beginning costs are minimal.
  • It is no longer necessary to use larger machinery to increase land productivity.
  • It improves health and makes cultivable lands more accessible to people.

Cons of Permaculture

  • The most significant cons of the perma culture process include high labour input, expensive labour and infrastructure costs, insect infestation, and loss due to unforeseeable conditions.
  • Another reason why many growers struggle with perma culture is a lack of solid understanding.

Permaculture Vs Agriculture




Design Philosophy

Guided by concepts that mirror natural ecosystems, with an emphasis on sustainability, diversity, and elemental synergy. Looks for self-sustaining, regenerative systems with few external inputs.

Monoculture and synthetic inputs such as chemical fertilisers and pesticides are frequently utilised, with a concentration on short-term output and profit maximisation.


Encourages the planting of a variety of species, including companion planting, to improve ecosystem resilience, attract beneficial insects, and prevent pests and diseases.

It has a tendency to favour monocultures, which leads to soil deterioration, increased insect pressure, and decreased biodiversity.

Soil Health

Healthy soil is prioritised through measures such as mulching, composting, and little soil disturbance. Encourages the growth of perennial plants for soil stabilisation and enrichment.

Involves frequent plowing and heavy chemical inputs, potentially degrading soil quality over time.

Water Management

Focuses on water conservation and retention through the use of techniques such as swales, rain gardens, and water-loving species planting. The goal is to replenish aquifers and decrease erosion.

Irrigation systems may be used, depleting water resources and increasing the danger of water pollution from runoff.

Energy & Input Efficiency

aims for self-sufficiency, reliance on less external inputs, closed-loop systems, and renewable energy sources

Frequently relies on fossil fuels for machinery and synthetic inputs, resulting in increased energy consumption and expenses.

Resilience to Climate Change

Because of their diversity and versatility, designs are often more adaptable to climate variability.

Can be subject to the effects of climate change, such as extreme weather events and altering growing seasons.

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