Geoinformatics and Its Branches
What is Geoinformatics
Geoinformatics is the science and technology that creates and applies information science infrastructure to challenges in geography, cartography, geosciences, and related fields of science and engineering.
Branches of Geoinformatics
1. Cartography: It is a combination of the words ‘carta’ (map) and ‘graphy’ (anything written or depicted in a specific fashion or concerning a specific subject). To put it another way, cartography is the art, technique, or practise of creating or making maps or charts.
It is the systematic portrayal of the Earth or a portion of the Earth on a flat surface with its meridians and parallels. Cartography has been transformed by technology since, formerly, producing maps was the sole focus; currently, the cartographic process is concerned with data manipulation, data capture, image processing, and visual display.
2. Geodesy: It is the field of geology that analyses the shape of the earth and the precise location of geographical locations.
3. Photogrammetry: It is a method of surveying or mapping that uses photography and is also used to determine the height and motions of clouds and sea waves. It is employed in the fields of architecture, engineering, and quality control. It is described in three words: ‘photo-light’, ‘gram-drawing’, and’metry-measurement’.
4. Remote Sensing: It is the science of gathering information about objects or regions from afar, generally using aircraft or satellites. It gathers information by sensing reflected energy from the Earth.
Its applications include monitoring ocean circulation and current systems, detecting ocean temperature and wave height, tracking hurricanes, earthquakes, erosion, and flooding, monitoring land use, mapping wetlands, and charting wildlife habitats.
Remote sensing is commonly used in hyperspectral imaging, sonar, and seismograms.
5. Spatial Analysis is a method for studying human behavioral patterns and their geographical manifestations in terms of topological, geometric, and geographic aspects.
6. Web Mapping: It is the process of using the maps delivered by geographic information systems (GIS) in World Wide Web.
7. Global Navigation Satellite Systems(Global positioning system):It is the branch of geoinformatics that provides accurate placement of everything on the planet’s surface. Satellites, military defence, and telecommunications all employ it.
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